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The Catcher in the Rye Novel Beat Sheet

243a0ba33adbee20d3ed689fbf712ec8--jd-salinger-holden-caulfieldWritten by: J.D. Salinger
Little, Brown and Company
Mass market paperback edition, copyright 1946 & 1946 (serial) and 1951 (novel)
214 pages

STG Genre: Rites of Passage
Book Genre: Realistic coming-of-age fiction

Given that J.D. Salinger’s literary masterpiece is the subject of this particular novel-based beat sheet, I was tempted to write out the introduction and all 15 beats in the following style:

It’s been years since I read The Catcher in the Rye all the way through. Decades, if you really want to know the truth. Not that I’m going to tell you all about my boring high school days or the crap that went on in the mid 1980s. Like you really need to hear about legwarmers and Wham! and shit.

But I first read this novel back then, when I was, like, sixteen. I was as sick of all the fake people and the stupid cliques in my small Wisconsin town as Holden Caulfield was at his prep school with the phonies. I totally hated it that the teachers made us read this thing. Like they thought it’d be cool of them to assign us something hip for a change, not like that depressing as hell Romeo and Juliet. Or that god-awful Molière stuff that they tried to pass off as “comedy”…

(And, yeah, I could keep going like this because it’s fun, but I won’t torture you with more. Only Salinger can get away with over 200 pages of it, LOL.)

Looking back, despite the fact that the novel came across as dated to my peers and to me, even when we were reading it in the 80s, the unrelenting “voicey-ness” made an impression.

Salinger’s highly distinctive narrative style left an indelible imprint on my memory, making Holden a character I couldn’t forget—even when I wanted to. Whenever fellow writers or book-club readers and I get talking on the subject of an author’s voice, the first-person narration of The Catcher in the Rye is never far from my mind. Salinger not only captured the sound of his generation, but he gave voice to the conflicted inner world of an adolescent in search of authenticity and connection.

Written when Salinger was in his twenties over a period of about a decade (some of which was during his time abroad fighting WWII), parts of the manuscript were originally published in serial form in 1945 – 1946. He later took these short stories about the Caulfield family and reworked them into the current novel, which was released in 1951 when the author was just thirty-two.

Some literary critics believe the strong alienation theme hinted that this was a war novel in disguise—possibly a way for Salinger to process the pain of his WWII experience. Regardless, the book turned into a literary anthem for disgruntled youth who were struggling with the transition between the joyful innocence of childhood and the burgeoning (and often difficult and disappointing) realities of adulthood.

Here’s the official blurb:

It’s Christmas and Holden Caulfield has just been expelled from yet another school. Fleeing the crooks at Pencey Prep, he pinballs around New York City seeking solace in fleeting encounters—shooting the bull with strangers in dive hotels, wandering alone round Central Park, getting beaten up by pimps, and cut down by erstwhile girlfriends.

The city is beautiful and terrible, in all its neon loneliness and seedy glamour, its mingled sense of possibility and emptiness. Holden passes through it like a ghost, thinking always of his kid sister Phoebe, the only person who really understands him, and his determination to escape the phonies and find a life of true meaning.

The Catcher in the Rye is an all-time classic coming-of-age story: an elegy to teenage alienation, capturing the deeply human need for connection and the bewildering sense of loss as we leave childhood behind.

For such a short book, Salinger’s iconic novel is packed with insight into the human condition—and especially those adolescent years—on nearly every page.

My take on the beats:

Opening Image (pages 1 – 2): In the idiosyncratic voice of the 17-year-old protagonist, the novel begins with Holden recounting a series of incidents from the prior year, which include reflections on his “lousy childhood” and the “madman stuff” that took place just before Christmas and which caused him to get sick.

This monologue cleanly establishes his character as an unreliable narrator and presents a vague sense of setting, which is in an institution of some kind—across the country in California, near his older brother D.B., a successful Hollywood writer—where Holden is currently convalescing. The present day intro takes place several unspecified months after Holden’s difficulty during the holidays.

Theme Stated (page 8): Holden recounts how his former history teacher, old Mr. Spencer, requested to see him at his house before Holden was due to leave the prep school. Mr. Spencer says, “Life is a game, boy. Life is a game that one plays according to the rules.” Outwardly, Holden pretends to agree, but he doesn’t buy into this. To himself, he thinks: Game my ass. Some game.

Set-Up (pages 1 – 39): Holden begins divulging to the reader additional recollections about the end of his fall semester at his prep school out East, just before the winter break. He’s sixteen and failing classes, about to get kicked out of his fourth school, Pencey. He knows his parents are going to be angry, so he wants to delay facing them, but he can’t stand being around his fellow boarding school students either.

Holden shares his (mostly unflattering) impressions of all the individuals he’s annoyed with, including but not limited to the vast majority of his teachers, his fencing teammates (Holden has proved to be a rather inept team manager), girls he’s formerly dated, his next door neighbor Ackley, and his roommate Stradler. The latter is a particular thorn in Holden’s side because he’s just begun dating a girl named Jane, whom we discover Holden still likes. Stradler is going out for the evening with Jane and wants Holden to write a descriptive English composition for him.

Holden pulls out a baseball mitt, which we learn belonged to his dead brother Allie, who died from leukemia when Holden was thirteen. Holden elects to describe that object, which has great sentimental value to him.

Catalyst (pages 40 – 46): Stradler’s lack of appreciation for the essay, combined with his teasing reaction to Holden’s questions about the date with Jane, enrages Holden. The roommate refuses to divulge whether or not he and Jane had sex that night, and this ignites in Holden further jealousy and anger. He tries to punch Stradler, but the other guy is stronger and he bloodies Holden’s nose.

Debate (pages 46 – 52): Holden has officially had enough of Pencey Prep and everyone in it. He considers his options and decides to leave the school early and stay on his own at a hotel in Manhattan for the last three days before break starts.

Break into Two (pages 53): Holden sneaks away from the school to the train station, literally leaving his comfort zone to venture into a “new world” (or, rather, a familiar world but viewed in a new way), just as Act 2 begins.

Fun and Games (pages 54 – 100): What follows is a series of surprising situations and unpleasant incidents that are hardly “fun” in the typical sense of the word, but Holden’s desperate search for interpersonal connection alongside his quest for self understanding and sexual experience have him taking risks and attempting to talk (or, more often, lie) to the people he encounters.

B Story (page 60): The B Story involves Holden’s relationship with his sister Phoebe, a prototypical “helper character.” She doesn’t appear physically until later, but he thinks of her—admiring her intelligence and the humorous stories she writes—and is tempted to call her at this point, early in Fun and Games. He refrains only because he fears the possibility of having to talk with his parents.

Midpoint (pages 100 – 104): False defeat. He’s offered the opportunity to hire a prostitute and initially agrees. When Holden sees her, however, he changes his mind about sleeping with her. Although he gives her the promised money, he just wants to talk with her. The prostitute takes cash but is angry about his behavior and, later, returns with her pimp for more money. The pimp punches Holden and injures him, not just physically but emotionally. He feels like committing suicide but doesn’t do it—only because he doesn’t want to be gawked at when he’s all gory.

Bad Guys Close In (pages 105 – 149): He tries to find his young sister Phoebe but can’t. And he has an unsatisfying conversation with Carl Luce, a former classmate, that leaves him confused and even more lonely. He gets really drunk.

All Is Lost (pages 149 – 154): In his inebriated state, he drunk dials his old girlfriend Sally, who he’d seen earlier in the day, but she’s still angry with him and rebuffs him further. Then he accidentally breaks the record he’d purchased as a gift for his sister, which upsets him, too. He ruminates more on the mess that is his life, alternately preoccupied with thoughts of sex and death. He’s extremely depressed.

Dark Night of the Soul (pages 154 – 157): It’s quite literally a dark night of soul searching for Holden. He sits down on a cold bench very late at night in the middle of Central Park and reacts to everything that’s happened up until now. His life isn’t going well and his plan to spend these days alone in the city has been unsuccessful. He ultimately decides it’s time to go home—if only to see his sister—but he doesn’t want to get caught by his parents.

Break into Three (pages 157 – 158): He manages to convince the night elevator boy to let him up to his parents’ floor. Holden’s plan is to simply sneak inside, see his sister, and leave again. Interestingly, it’s at this point that he actively begins to “play the game” that he’d so scrupulously avoided earlier. In regards to his deception of the elevator boy, Holden tells the reader, “It’s funny. All you have to do is say something nobody understands and they’ll do practically anything you want them to.”

Finale (pages 158 – 213): Holden spends time with his sister Phoebe until he hears his parents returning home. He sneaks out and visits a former teacher from one of his earlier schools, but he has an upsetting encounter there, too. Holden finally figures out a solution to his problems, which is to run away and go out West. His sister, however insists on coming along with him—basically, refusing to let him be alone and disconnect from her.

A and B Stories cross with this reconnection with Phoebe, which ultimately helps him deal with his lingering loss over Allie’s death. He also recognizes that his older brother, D.B., isn’t a bad sibling either. Grief is a process that Holden is working through and, while he doesn’t openly admit this, his future isn’t necessarily as bleak as it had appeared to be, even earlier in the day. Emotions are changeable. For the moment, watching his sister ride on the carousel in such a carefree way, Holden realizes he’s happy.

Final Image (pages 213 – 214): The opening and final images are framed with narrative in the present day, and we return to that now. Holden is in California, still convalescing, with plans to return to the East and begin at a new school in September. He claims to be getting better, but is he? He seems to recognize his own sense of nostalgia, but whether he’s successfully transitioned from a teen to an adult is debatable. Salinger’s unreliable narrator leaves the reader wondering…

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Marilyn Brant

About the Author

About the Author: Marilyn Brant is a New York Times & USA Today bestselling author of contemporary women’s fiction, romantic comedy, and mystery. Her debut novel won the Romance Writers of America’s prestigious Golden Heart® Award (2007), and she was named Author of the Year (2013) by the Illinois Association of Teachers of English. She loves all things Jane Austen, has a passion for Sherlock Holmes, is a travel addict and a music junkie, and lives on chocolate and gelato. For more information, please visit her website. .

There Are 10 Comments

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  1. Don Roff Don Roff says:

    Terrific take on Salinger’s classic novel, Marilyn. It’s been about two decades since I’ve read it. Your beat sheet makes me want to take another look. Also, I have the Pencey Prep school pennant on my wall. 🙂

  2. S B Hadley Wilson says:

    Love this! This was the first book I (re)read when I decided to become a writer in 2011.

  3. Stefania says:

    I love this book. Its timeless. Thank you for this beat sheet.

  4. Martin M says:

    Thanks for this great analysis! One question – consider this often cited, popular structural rule of writing: “Your protagonist must have a concrete, visible goal, especially at the break into Act 2” Do you think Catcher conforms to this? “Spend at least three days alone in the NY before having to confront his parents.” If this is the goal, do you think this would be concrete and visible enough, if Salinger had submitted a beat sheet for review?

    • Thanks, Martin. Appreciate your thoughts and, also, the interesting question! I’m just one reader, and Salinger’s novel has been hotly debated for decades by scholars who’ve deeply analyzed the text, so I won’t pretend to speak for anyone else on this. That said, my first reaction to the idea of a “concrete, visible goal,” is to ask myself if any of Holden’s stated goals can be trusted, since he’s such an unreliable narrator…

      The break into Act 2 is the kickoff to Holden’s NYC adventure, where he mimics being an independent adult, rather than the trapped adolescent he’d been while at school. I’d say his personal goal at that point in time is more about wanting to escape the confines of the school environment — or anywhere that is populated by “phonies.” He sets out to do that and does, in fact, succeed in getting away from Pencey Prep. That’s both concrete and visible. But even when he’s alone in Manhattan, avoiding his parents, what he really seems to desire is true connection. So, despite constantly trying to convince the reader that he wants to run away (first to NYC, then out west to Colorado to be a ranch hand, etc.), his deeper, unstated goal feels more like a need to be with someone who genuinely knows, likes, and cares about him — such as his sister. And he eventually gets to have that less concrete/less visible goal, too, in spite of himself. 🙂

  5. Martin M says:

    Thank you Marilyn! That really does make sense. The visible goal is there but it’s deep and unstated. And maybe his external goal is contained within – or formed by – an internal dilemma or conflicting desire. When I really think about it, perhaps especially because Holden is unreliable, it feels like I’m reading primarily to find out whether or not Holden solves his internal conflict, or dilemma, and less whether or not he finds his sister, though both are compelling. The main reason I bring this up is, when I look back over my writing, I’ve been “paralyzed” so many times by the overt, concrete, visible goal thing. I realize its power, but I’ve just as many films I love seem to defy the rule, or understate it, or perhaps their story engine is based primarily on setting up an internal dilemma (Ordinary People?), as opposed to an overt, obvious external goal that we can picture in our heads (rescue the princess), and then the focus is whether or not the internal dilemma is solved, and how. That’s for your excellent response!

    • You’re so welcome, Martin! Glad I could help a little. And for what it’s worth, I’m personally a big fan of stories where the internal dilemma is a driving force in the narrative. You mentioned Ordinary People, which was one of my favorites (both Judith Guest’s novel and the film with Timothy Hutton). I think if the questions the protagonist is wrestling with about life/love/self are primal enough, like Conrad’s was, the readers’ ability to relate to that and be compelled by it will amplify the story structure and keep readers/viewers riveted. 🙂 All the best on your writing!

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